Comparing integration and inclusion between Canadians and Americans with disabilities: Evidence from national surveys of time use
As Canada moves toward the passage of a federal statute assuring access and inclusion for disabled persons, inevitable comparisons arise between the statutory environments for people with disabilities in Canada and the USA. In previous research, we have used daily time use as a macro indicator of the degree of integration of people with disabilities into the wider society. If statutory protection of disabled persons is effective, activity participation should be similar between persons with and without disabilities in jurisdictions that are favorable to full participation. This paper provides the analysis of national survey data on time use in the United States and Canada for 2010. It shows that the dissimilarity of time use by persons with and without disabilities is smaller for Canadians than for Americans. This finding shows that disabled Canadians are more integrated into their wider society than disabled Americans. Paid work is one activity where Canadians and Americans with and without disabilities are most dissimilar. Regression analysis of time spent in paid work indicates that, with demographic and economic descriptors held constant, the American residency does not promote an advantage in paid work which is a key indicator of integration. This casts doubt on the effectiveness of statutory protections for persons with disabilities.