Canadian Journal of Disability Studies <p>The Canadian Journal of Disability Studies publishes peer-reviewed original articles that advance research in the multidisciplinary, international field of disability studies.</p> <p>All content is totally open access.&nbsp;The CJDS never charges any processing or publication fees, and is free and open to the public. This ensures that scholarship in the CJDS reaches the broadest possible audience, with no barriers for authors, institutions, or readers. The journal also advocates for Open Accessibility, ensuring that all content is fully accessible.<br><br>The journal embraces a wide range of methodologies and perspectives, values collaborative and cross-disciplinary work, community partnership, and creative approaches to scholarship.<br><br>Research in the Canadian Journal of Disability Studies will be of interest to scholars and students from across all academic disciplines, as well as anyone involved in disability arts, advocacy, community organization or policy.&nbsp; The journal foregrounds a critical disability studies perspective, committed to disability rights.</p> <p>Please consider registering as a reader to receive notifications and announcements.</p> en-US <p>There are no article processing or submission charges for CJDS authors.</p><p>Author(s) are not required to assign their copyright in and to their article to the <em>Canadian Journal of Disability Studies</em>. Instead, The <em>CJDS</em> asks for one-time rights to print this original work.</p><p>All articles in the journal are assigned a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license. See:</p><p><img src="/public/site/images/jdolmage/88x31.png" alt="" /></p><p>Authors are asked to contact the journal Editor if they wish to post the article on any website; translate or authorize a translation of the article; copy or otherwise reproduce the article, in any format, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so; copy or otherwise reproduce portions of the article, including tables and figures, beyond what is permitted under Canadian copyright law, or authorize others to do so.</p><p>Contacting the Editor will simply allow us to track the use and distribution of your article.  We encourage use for non-commercial, educational purposes. </p><p>Authors must provide proof of permission clearance prior to the publication of their work if they are including images or other materials that are not their own.  Keep in mind that such clearance can at times be costly, and often takes time.  The journal editor can often work with you to seek permissions if you need information, advice or assistance.</p> (Jay Dolmage, PhD) (Jay Dolmage) Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 An Editorial of Sorts <p>The making of this special issue saw us living in crip time, working through crip time, and reflecting on the pace of academic projects and collaborations with other disabled folks. More than this, we realized crip time made it possible for this special issue and those contributing to it, to develop and grow, in ways only crip time can allow, and to create a crip space of creativity.</p> Bridget Liang, Catherine Duchastel de Montrouge ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 11:42:38 -0400 Shipping Disability/Fanfiction: Disrupting Narratives of Fanfiction as Inclusive <p>In this essay I will first give a definition of what fanfiction is within the wider online environment of online participatory cultures, as well examine whether inclusiveness holds up as a defining characteristic when disability is taken into consideration. I then examine how the development of fanfiction as a creative practice and of fanfiction-specific genres, have contributed to the queering of fanfiction spaces and practices Finally I argue that subversion and transgression are not best suited to conceptualize fanfiction, and that instead disruption can generate more apt interrogations. Specifically, disruption allows for us to explore fanfiction as both disrupting heteronormative narratives, gendered and fan behaviour expectations, and as disrupting the notion of the fan as a somehow homogenous construction. This affords disability the possibility of being disruptive in turn.</p> Catherine Duchastel de Montrouge ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 11:43:01 -0400 disabled! <p>Join River Tam on a tour through the many worlds of fan fiction and disability in the experimental audio-visual essay<em> disabled</em>!</p> <p><a class="ytp-share-panel-link ytp-no-contextmenu" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener" aria-label="Share link"></a></p> Olivia Dreisinger ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 11:42:14 -0400 Those Crazy Fangirls on the Internet: Activism of Care, Disability and Fan Fiction <p>This article explores Activism of Care, a form of activism offering strategies, implementation of skills and accessibility different from those offered by traditional activism. Activism of Care suggests that activist strategies are not universal, but instead should be tailored for specific communities’ structures, skills and intersectional positionings. This paper focuses on the implementation of Activism of Care by and for neurodivergent participants in fan fiction communities on Tumblr. It demonstrates ways Activism of Care is implemented to promote destigmatization of mental illnesses, and to celebrate participants with depression, anxiety or PTSD. This article describes how Activism of Care implements elements of Care Ethics in fan fiction communities to promote social change. Emotional, literary and social structures of these communities are used to promote the rights, well-being and pleasure of neurodivergent participants. Finally, this paper provides characteristics by which to recognize or create this type of activism, alongside or as an alternative for traditional activism.</p> Dean Barnes Leetal ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 11:53:47 -0400 From Slash Fan Fiction to Crip Fan Fiction: What Role Does Disability Have in Fandom? <p>Slash fiction is perceived by scholars like Henry Jenkins as capable of presenting a counterhegemonic message that critically questions and disrupts power structures in the production of fiction. Slash fiction presents a critical queering of characters, disrupting the heterocentrism of canonical fiction. Slash fiction is a creation of fan fiction where canonically heterosexual couples are paired with one another in love relationships, allowing for an imagined queer potential.&nbsp;</p> <p>Even though slash, with its queering of relationships would seem to be a doorway into empowerment for disability fiction - replacing one oppressed identity (queer) for another (disability), many of the conventions of slash, mixed with the overwhelming social power of stereotypes around disability serve to further replicate patterns of oppression upon disabled characters. One of the conventions of slash fiction is the need to make canonically straight male characters more vulnerable, more willing to explore their vulnerability in relationships. This vulnerability allows for male protagonists to disrupt the rigid boundaries of patriarchal, heterosexist constructions of masculinity by making the characters more open to vulnerabilities, which tend to be constructed as threats to the construction of patriarchal masculinity. Because of disability’s cultural association with vulnerability in the cultural imagination, disablement is often utilized by slash fiction authors as a means of achieving vulnerability of the characters in a slash fiction relationship. These relationships are often referred to as “Hurt/Comfort” or “H/C” and often depend on the assumption that disablement represents a weakening of the disabled character, problematically representing disability as weakness.&nbsp;</p> <p>Through an examination of the association between slash and disability on the popular fan fiction site&nbsp;<em>Archive of Our Own</em>, this paper illustrates that although slash fiction has the&nbsp;<em>potential </em>to represent a liberatory counterhegemonic text, it fails to do so where disability is concerned and relies on tropes and assumptions about disability in order to ‘queer’ hegemonic texts.&nbsp;</p> Derek Newman-Stille ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 11:56:31 -0400 Gimp Sue Gets the Girl: Disability in Twilight Fanfiction <p>While many fan studies scholars have written about the Mary Sue through gender and sexuality, disability is often entirely overlooked. &nbsp;I take up this gap in scholarship in the following paper, looking at the various intersections between disability and Twilight fanfiction. I look closely at two Disabled!Twilight fanfics written by disabled authors—LisbethsGirlfriend’s <em>Forgive Me for Loving You</em>, and <em>The Plasma’s Coping with Change</em>. &nbsp;Through their respective fics, these disabled Mary Sues, or Gimp Sues, address issues of sex, disability, and coming out, questioning just who has the right to tell stories, and what stories get told.</p> Olivia Dreisinger ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 12:01:55 -0400 Authentic Representation and Author Identity: Exploring Mental Illness in The Hobbit Fanfiction <p>This paper addresses concerns with authenticity claims that surround mental illness and author identity in fanfiction. I will apply the critiques surrounding representation in media (see Mitchell and Snyder, 2001; Couser 2003, 2009) found in disability studies and fandom studies (see Jenkins 2012) to fanfiction. In this paper, I analyze two pieces of fanfiction which focus on Thorin II also known as Thorin Oakenshield, a character from J.R.R Tolkien’s <em>The Hobbit</em> novel and Peter Jackson’s film adaptations. I explore how in these texts the authors portray mental illness through their characterization of Thorin II. How the author’s actual or perceived personal mental health status may impact their writing, and readers’ responses to their writing, is explored through the lenses of identity politics (see Calhoun, 1994) and authenticity (Couser, 2009; van Dijk, 1989). In the context of disability and fandom studies, these fanfictions act as examples of a) combination fictional/ autobiographical writings which work to provide what the authors’ perceive as accurate portrayals of mental illness, and b) how the author’s mental health status impacts the perceived credibility of their work.</p> Jennifer Rogers ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 12:06:21 -0400 Reflection: Autistic-Coded Characters and Fans in Fandom <p>The lack of general knowledge about autism, its diversity, and its pervasive presence, among people in the real world, bleeds seamlessly into the worlds of fandom, where the very same objections that many autistic adults face in real life (“you <em>can’t </em>be autistic, you seem like a real person”) get lobbed at fictional characters, and the autistic fans who claim them.</p> Christa Mullis ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 12:09:35 -0400 Fanwork: Made From Something Different <p>Watching <em>Deep Space Nine</em> was an exercise in peering around corners and being unable to get a straight-on view of what I knew to be just beyond my field of vision. Not necessarily in terms of the greater world of the Star Trek universe – that I could see much more easily, as DS9 is still the only Star Trek series that took the time to consider what day-to-day life would be like in the greater world of the show outside of Federation starships thanks to it being set on a space station, boldly parking instead of going – but very specifically, in regards to Julian Bashir. The show’s primary medical character, a bright young doctor straight out of Starfleet Academy, who quickly learns there’s more to his mission than he thought while never losing any of his dedication or kindness.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>I’ve read about Alexander Siddig’s portrayal of Bashir, of his work turning him from someone deliberately unlikable into one of Star Trek’s beloved characters. I’m familiar with Bashir’s backstory and growth, his canonical developmental disorder and his transformation from fresh-faced graduate to hardened, mature officer. And throughout it all, I’ve always wondered, <em>did they mean for him to sound like me?</em></p> Hannah Orlove ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 12:12:39 -0400 It’s Not Weird… Like Werewolves. <p>This paper is both a theoretical and creative exploration using fan ficion. Monsters have drawn my interest because they are often metaphors for marginalized folks. Through histories of marginalized experiences represented as monsters and villains, I claim the monster as my own. In more recent iterations of the monster, I have observed this pull towards the normate looking at the show <em>Teen Wolf</em> in comparison to the 1984 movie by the same name. The monster becomes the protagonist, but in doing so, ends up becoming predominantly white, heterosexual, cisgender, abled, thin, and conventionally attractive. Furthermore, the representations of the monster consist of bodies that draw closer to the normate, but are exemplary of the norms of desirability. In short, they find the hottest models to play as monsters. The monster is no longer the marginalized subject, but becomes an expected, unattainable norm of desirability like Audre Lorde’s “mythical norm”.</p> <p>&nbsp;In response to this mythical norm, I have rewritten the scripts as fans sometimes do. In <em>Teen Wolf</em>, the protagonist, Scott McCall becomes abled upon becoming a werewolf. What if he stayed disabled and wasn’t drawn closer to the normate? What if instead, he stayed a disabled nerd and ended up in a relationship with his best friend, Stiles, another disabled nerd? This little slice of life explores a little about what it’s like to be disabled, queer, racialized, and a monster that’s a little more representative of what it’s like to be marginalized.</p> Bridget Liang ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 12:15:46 -0400 Normalizing Disability: Tagging and Disability Identity Construction through Marvel Cinematic Universe Fanfiction <p>The exploration of identity is a common practice in fanfiction, and scholarship has consistently investigated this fan practice. Yet, despite the presence of disability and disabled characters in fanfiction, this aspect of identity exploration is only sparsely represented in scholarship. This article explores the intersection of disability studies and fanfiction studies through the lens of labelling and tagging, key elements of both fields. Labelling and classification in disability communities are often associated with medicalization, stereotyping, and erasure of individuality, while tagging in fanfiction provides a communicative framework between authors and readers. These differences in functions of labelling and tagging provide the foundation that enables tagging in fanfiction to function inclusively as a normalizing force, despite the problematic role of labelling in disability communities. Three trends in the ways disability is tagged in fanfiction are explored through a close reading of a selection of fanfiction from the Marvel Cinematic Universe: (1) disability is primarily tagged when it is a significant component of the plot, (2) the disability of canonically disabled characters is primarily tagged when that disability directly influences the plot of the story, and (3) mental disability/illness is significantly more represented than physical disability.</p> Adrienne E. Raw ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 12:19:33 -0400 Bodies of Knowledge: Politics of Archive, Disability, and Fandom <p>The work of critical theory cannot stop when it leaves the classroom, but must encompass the lived experience of the everyday. This essay combines personal narrative, disability theory, and a discussion of archiving strategies to question the boundaries of disability, injury and impairment.</p> <p>Although fandom has an interesting and constructive relationship with disability, injury, and impairment, this paper does not focus on individual fan-works that feature these topics. This essay is instead an examination of the macro-structure of two different archives: <em>TV Tropes </em>and <em>Archive of Our Own</em>.</p> <p><em>TV Tropes</em> is an informal encyclopedia of narrative devices that uses community engagement to read narratives in a critical yet accessible way. Employing the macro-structure organization of the database, users frame the linkage of pity and disability in an atypical manner that subverts mainstream ableist assertions. This shows us that the structure of the archive allows for opportunities to resist oppressive ideologies. Rather than subverting official archival methods,<em> Archive of Our Own</em> instead provides space for users to create intersectional spaces through personally generated tags. While these websites are examples of how diverse archival strategies can positively engage with disability narratives, the decision to separate the labels of disability and injury is indicative of tensions around the categorization of the body. Examining how the division can be broken in both theory and fandom creates new, productive models of activism.</p> Chelsea Fay Baumgartner ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 15:09:34 -0400 Enabling/Disabling: Fanfiction and Disability Discourse <p>While fanfiction ostensibly provides a safe space to explore and challenge ideologies about <em>any </em>belief media texts reify, a review of fan studies literature shows little attention to disability from scholars in the field. This erasure seems odd, since Archive of Our Own, the fanfiction archive associated with the Organization for Transformative Works, lists “disability” in its list of “most popular” tags, and most fandoms include a significant body of texts that disable its characters (“Tags”). Blindness, deafness, injuries leading to mobility impairments, and other visible and invisible disabilities feature strongly as tropes in fanfictions themselves. Clearly fandom has something to do with disability of all kinds: physical, cognitive, and emotional.</p> AmyLea Clemons ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 15:13:44 -0400 Review of The Fan Fiction Studies Reader, Eds. Hellekson, Karen., and Kristina Busse (2014) <p>Disability is often absent in both the content and the production levels of Western film and television media, and other popular cultural productions. They rarely include disability except as plot devices that invoke ableist tropes such as: tragedy, pity, or a temporary challenge for non-disabled characters to overcome, or as lessons for the main character to learn from, and many more. In the Ruderman white paper on <em>Employment of Actors with Disabilities in Television, </em>Woodburn and Kopic found that 95% of disabled characters in the top ten US television shows were played by non-disabled actors (2016). Yet, these marked absences of disability from popular media has not been reflected in the numerous fan creations produced by fan communities in tribute to their favourite fandom.</p> Fiona N. Cheuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Apr 2019 15:20:28 -0400